|During the 1898 hostilities with Spain, Minnesota formed
three new regiments. The 13th Minnesota Regiment was ordered
to fight the Spanish in the Philippines while the 12th and
14th Regiments stayed in the United States. At the Battle
of Manila, they suffered a greater number of casualties than
all other regiments combined. After the hostilities ended
with Spain, the 13th Minnesota Regiment fought against the
Philippines in their fight for independence.
|The Philippine American War, (Insurrection), was America’s
first true colonial war as a world power. After defeating
Spain in 1898, the United States purchased the Spanish Philippines,
where rebels resisted U.S. control. Fighting broke out in
February 1899. Although war was never declared, the United
States President proclaimed it over on 4 July 1902, but fighting
continued for many years. The war is said to have cost the
lives of one million Filipino civilians, more than 4,000 American
soldiers and 20,000 Filipino fighters. The United States finally
granted the Philippines their independence 4 July 1946.
|Cuba, which had been a Spanish colony since 1511, struggled
for independence. Spain sent a military force to help the
colonial government maintain control. On 15 February 1898,
an explosion sank the battleship USS Maine in Havana Harbor.
On 25 April 1898, the United States declared war on Spain,
sent the U.S. Navy to the Spanish Philippines, and prepared
to send troops to Cuba. The U.S. Navy destroyed the Spanish
Pacific Fleet in Manila Bay. American troops were dispatched
to Cuba in June and attained military victories on San Juan
Hill and Kettle Hill. The next day the U.S. Navy destroyed
the Spanish Atlantic Fleet as it was leaving Santiago Harbor.
Hostilities ended 12 August 1898. The Treaty of Paris, 10
December 1898, formally ended the war between the United States
|During World War I Germany published a notice in the United
States that any vessel in the waters around Britain flying
the Flag of Great Britain was liable for destruction. The
Lusitania, a British luxury liner, ignored the warnings and
left New York. On 7 May 1915, a German submarine torpedoed
and sank the Lusitania with the loss of 1,200 lives, including
128 Americans. The sinking threatened the neutrality of the
United States and promoted anti-German sentiment. Investigation
in later years revealed the Lusitania was carrying munitions.
|The primary causes of World War I, also known as the Great
War, were imperialism, territorial disputes and economic rivalries
among the Great Powers. After the assassination of the heir
apparent to the Austro-Hungarian throne, 28 June 1914, Austria-Hungary
declared war on Serbia. Soon every major power in Europe was
involved in the war. Entangling alliances contributed to the
spread of the war. For three years trench warfare kept battle
lines stationary. Later in the war, poison gas was introduced.
Unrestricted German submarine warfare caused the United States
to enter the war in 1917. The Treaty of Versailles was signed
on 11 November 1918. That day was designated Armistice Day
now known as Veteran’s Day.
OF ARGONNE FOREST
|From 15 July to 4 August 1918, the Second Battle of the
Marne, in France, marked the turning point of World War I.
After a German attack, the Allied Forces counterattacked with
a force that included several American divisions. Fierce combat
occurred at Chateau-Thierry, where the Americans won their
first decisive victory of the war.
|From 26 September to 11 November 1918, the Meuse-Argonne,
France, offensive was the greatest battle of World War I.
In six weeks the American Expeditionary Forces lost over 26,000
killed and 96,000 wounded. This was the final battle of the
|In June 1918, the battle for Belleau Wood, France, was the
first battle where the American Expeditionary Forces experienced
heavy casualties and showed the world that America was there
to fight. The U.S. Marine Corps suffered the worst single
day’s casualties in their history when more than 1,000
men were killed or wounded. Four Medals of Honor were awarded
for battlefield heroism.
IN THE MILITARY
|Black Americans were initially recruited to serve in the
Revolutionary War. Post-war laws first denied Blacks access
to military service, but they eventually fought and served
valiantly in all of the wars since 1812. Initially denied
freedoms, suffering rejection and segregation, they proved
themselves capable and courageous in fulfilling escalating
responsibilities in recognition of their abilities. Fully
integrated at the start of the Korean conflict and since,
Black Americans confirmed their ability to perform in battle
and at high levels of responsibility.
IN THE MILITARY
|Women have played important military roles since the Revolutionary
War. Although unfairly treated in early wars, they distinguished
themselves in teaching sanitation, nursing and spying. Disguised
as men, they fought on battlefields. Although women were authorized
to serve as nurses in 1861, they were not eligible for health
care, salary and a uniform until 1899. During World War II,
opposition to women in the military was strong. In May of
1942, the Women’s Auxiliary Corps was formed to serve
with the Army but did not receive military status until August
1943. The Nurse Corps was denied rank until 1947 and veteran
status until 1977. Women are now integrated into the military
and serve in all capacities and levels of command.
|Mayo’s commitment to the military began with the Civil
War when William W. Mayo was named examining surgeon for the
enrollment board for the First Minnesota District. He served
from April 1863 until February 1865.
Charles and Will Mayo served on the Medical Board For National
Defense. In 1916 the board, working through the Red Cross,
organized 50 base hospitals. One was organized through the
University of Minnesota with financial support and staff from
the Mayo Clinic.
In 1928, the Mayo Clinic Plummer Building was dedicated with
the 23-bell carillon dedicated to the American soldier.
In 1934, the American Legion recognized W. J. and C. H. Mayo
for "distinguished service to our sick and disabled comrades
and to suffering humanity." President Franklin D. Roosevelt
presented a plaque to the brothers at Soldiers Field Memorial
Park on 8 August 1934.
Mayo research on oxygen requirements in humans, the development
of the oxygen mask and an antigravity suit enabled high altitude
flying. President Roosevelt recognized Mayo's efforts by presenting
them with the highest U.S. aviation award in 1940.
In 1944, two Mayo Medical Units served in the Pacific Theater
until the end of World War II.